History of Germany
Gutenberg invented the printing press, Luther started with his theses the reformation of church, Einstein published his theory of relativity and the philosopher Marx developed the communist theory - all those are examples for an enormous impact on history wide spread over the German borders.
Medieval Germany was dominated mainly by struggles within the German Empire as well as the catholic church. The notion of "Holy Roman Empire of German Nation" implies the growing political distance between Rome and Germany.
The geographic spread of Germany changed continuously over the centuries. Although all of Germany was under the control of the Emperor, his power was so weak or uncertain, that many local authorities had to maintain order. Nevertheless being located in the center of Europe, Germany was active in international trade as well as manufacturing and therefore prospered during the fourteenth and fifteenth century.
In 1517, with the posting of Martin Luther's theses, an era of religious tensions began, which seemed to have an end through the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. But in 1618, the Thirty Years' War began, and by its end in 1648 (Peace of Westphalia) large parts of Germany were devastated. Politically, Germany was even less united than before and a long period of economic decline began.
To withstand the growing revolutionary french power, at the end of the 18th century, Austria and Prussia built an alliance, which didn't help to stop Napoleon and his military victories. The effect of the French occupation amongst others was the reduction of geographical entities within Germany from about 300 to merely 40.
In 1862 King Wilhelm I. of Prussia chose Otto von Bismarck as his minister president. After the wars against Austria, France and Denmark it was Wilhelm I. who was crowned as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles.
Culture of Germany
German culture is grown over the centuries and is extraordinary chameleonic and makes the country a popular year-round destination.
No matter what kind of entertainment you love, you'll definitely have a great time. The repertoire of possible activities is endless, but there are highlights like Octoberfest, wine and rock festivals, christmas markets or medieval spectacles that you shouldn't miss these parts.
Fans of classic will be impressed by magnificent opera houses or the special atmosphere of open air performances as well as museums attract people of all ages offering exhibitions about history, dinosaurs or toys and often involve visitors in action.
However, after a nice time full of fun and action, it's always a good idea to enjoy pure german culture - look for a nice place in a beergarden or cosy cafe and relax with a good book - in the land of poets, thinkers and philosophers.