About Jodhpur City
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About Jodhpur City

History of Jodhpur City

Rajasthan, the land embellished with infinite imprints of colour and chivalry, harmonious life and lingering music, harmony and hospitality, palaces and pristine nature; has been extending an invigorating invitation to the world, since time immemorial.

Jodhpur, the heart of Rajasthan and the majestic jewel of her eternal crown, iluminate the Thar, enriching the desert with enterpreneurship, scholarship and art.

Rulers of Jodhpur Rao Jodha 1438-1488
Satal 1488-1491
Suja 1491-1515
Ganga 1515
Ganga (II) 1515-1531
Maldeo 1531-1583
Raja Udaya Singh 1583-1594
Raja Sura Singh 1594-1619
Raja Gajsingh 1619-1637
Raja Jaswant Singh 1637-1680
Raja Ajit Singh 1680-1724
Maharaja Abhi Singh 1724-49
Maharaja Rama Singh 1749-50
Maharaja Bhagat Singh 1750-52
Maharaja Bijej Singh 1752-92
Maharaja Bhim Singh 1792-1803
Maharaja Man Singh 1803-17
Maharaja Chatter Singh 1817-18
Maharaja Man Singh 1818-43
Maharaja Takhat Singh 1843-73
Maharaja Jaswant Singh II
1873-95
Maharaja Sardar Singh
1895-1911
Maharaja Sumer Singh 1911-18
Maharaja Umaid Singh 1918-47
Maharaja Hanwant Singh 1947-53
Maharaja Gaj singh II 1953


According to Rathore tradition, the clan traces its origins back to the Hindu god, Rama, hero of the epic Ramayana, and thence to the sun. So the Rathore's belong to the Suryavansha (solar race) branch of the Kshatriyas, the warrior caste of Hindus. Later, breaking into historical reality, in 470 A.D. Nayal Pal conquered the kingdom of Kanauj, near modern Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh. The Rathor capital for seven centuries, Kanauj fell in 1193 to the Afghan invader's led by Muhammad Ghori.

The fleeing ruler, Jai Chand was drowned in the Ganga. But his son Siyaji, had better luck. An expedient marriage alliance between the Rathore Sihaji and the sister of a local prince enabled the Rathors to consolidate themselves in this region. In fact, they prospered to such a degree that they managed to oust the Pratiharas of Mandore, nine km to the north of present day Jodhpur.He later set himself up as an independent ruler around the wealthy trading centre of Pali, just south of Jodhpur. His descendants flourished, battled often, won often, and in 1381 Rao Chanda ousted the Parihars from Mandore which then became the Rathore seat of government.Rathore fortunes then turned for better. Rao Chanda's son and heir, Rainmal, won praise for his capture of Ajmer and was then entrusted with the care of his orphaned nephew, destined to inherit the Mewar throne of Chittor. Rainmal may well have had his eyes on this fine, hilltop fort. But court intrigue and treachery stopped him. In 1438 he was doped with opium, and finally shot dead. This triggered bitter feuds, ending with Mewar and Marwar becoming separate states.Rathore legend continues in various versions. One is that Jodha, one of Rainmal's 24 sons, fled Chittor and finally, 15 years later, recaptured Mandore in 1453. Five years later he was acknowledged as ruler. A holy man sensibly advised him to move his capital to hilltop safety.

By 1459, it became evident that a more secure headquarters was required. The high rocky ridge nine km to the south of Mandore was an obvious choice for the new city of Jodhpur, with the naturaly enhanced by a fortress of staggering proportions, and to which Rao Jodha's successors added over the centuries.
Rao Ganga Singh of Jodhpur (reigned 1516-32) fought alongside the army of the great warrior king of Mewar, Rana Sanga, against the first Mughal emperor, Babur.

But over the next half century, the rulers of Jodhpur allied themselves with Babur's grandson, Akbar. Several rulers of Jodhpur became trusted lieutenants of the Mughals, such as Raja Surender, who conquered Gujarat and much of the Deccan for Akbar, and Raja Gaj Singh, who put down the rebellion of the Mughal prince, Khurram, against his father, Jahangir. With the support of the Mughals, the court of Jodhpur flourished and the kingdom became a great centre of the arts and culture. In the 17th century Jodhpur became a flourishing centre of trade for the camel caravans moving from Central Asia to the parts of Gujarat and vice versa. In 1657, however, Maharaja Jaswant Singh (reigned 1638-78) backed the wrong prince in the great war of succession to the Mughal throne. He was in power for almost twenty-five years with Aurangzeb before he was sent out to the frontier as viceroy in Afghanistan. Aurangzeb then tried to seize his infant son, but loyal retainers smuggled the little prince out of his clutches, hidden, they say, in a basket of sweets.

Political Strife: The kingdom of Jodhpur then formed a triple alliance with Udaipur and Jaipur, which together threw off the Mughal yoke. As a result,the maharajas of Jodhpur finally regained the privilege of marrying Udaipur princesses something they had forfeited when they had allied themselves with the Mughals.A condition of these marriages, however, was that the sons born of the Udaipur princesses would be first in line to the Jodhpur throne.This soon led to considerable jealousy. Nearly a century of turmoil followed. The state of affairs was such that a young Rathore prince, when asked, where Jodhpur was, simply pointed to the sheath of his dagger and said, Inside here.

In the 1870s, a remarkable man came to the fore in Jodhpur Sir Pratap Singh a son of Maharaja of Jodhpur, he himself ruled a neighboring kingdom called Idar, abdicated to become Regent of Jodhpur, which he ruled, in effect, for nearly fifty years. Sir Pratap Singh was a great warrior and the epitome of Rajput chivalry. He became an intimate friend of three British sovereigns. At Queen Victoria's durbar he is said to have presented her not with mere jewels, like everyone else, but with his own sword, his most valuable possession as a Rajput warrior. Sir Pratap Singh laid the foundation of a modern state in Jodhpur, which Maharaja Umaid Singh reigned 1918-47 built upon. The kingdom of Jodhpur was not merely the largest of the Rajput states, but also one of the most progressive.

In 1949, after the independence of India, it was merged into the newly created state of Rajasthan.

Geography

Jodhpur, one of the largest district of Rajasthan state is centrally situated in Western region of the State, having geographical area of 22850 sq. Kms.It has population of 28.81 lacs as per 2001 census. The district stretches between 2600 and 27037 at north Latitude and between 72 55 and 73 52 at East Longitude. This district is situated at the height between 250-300 meters above sea level.

Jodhpur is bound by Nagaur in East, Jaisalmer in west, Bikaner in North and Barmer as well as Pali in the South. The length of the district from North to South and from East to West is 197 Km & 208 Km respectively.

This district comes under Arid zone of the Rajasthan state. It covers 11.60 of total area of arid zone of the state. Some of the area of Great Indian Desert THAR also comes with in the district. General slope of the terrain is towards west. Despite its arid climate, Jodhpur is blessed with a variety of flora and fauna. A survey conducted by district administration with the help of forest officials shows 162 flora and 144 fauna at Machia Safari situated only 10 kms from Jodhpur.

Extreme of heat in summer and cold in winter is the characteristic of the desert. Jodhpur is no exception. The temperature varies from 49 degree in summer to1 degree in winter. The Sandstorm andhi spectacle for people from other region of India. The rainy days are limited to maximum 15 in a year. The average rainfall is 302 mm.

Soil of the district is classified mainly as sandy and loamy. Bajra ( pearl millet) is the major crop in Kharif. Jodhpur has excellent ground water taste in many part of district. In Rabi Wheat, Pulse and a variety of masala like Jeera, Dhania and Red chilly are also grown. Jodhpur has a name for its red chilly, onion and garlic. It is one of the major production centre for Guar.

There is no perennial river in the district. However, there are important rivers in the district viz.Luni and Mithri rivers but their basis saline water.Main sources of irrigation besides rainwater are dug-wells tube-wells. The heighest irrigated area in district is in Bilara Tehsil followed by Bhoplgarh and Osian tehsil.

The major and important minerals of the district are sand stones and Lime stones. Fawn & Red colours sandston of the district is very popular and found in abundance. Besides this Buliding stones, stone slabs and flagstones are mined in the district on regular basis. Minerals like quartz & clays of various colours & dolomite are also available in the district.
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